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    完型填空复习指导

                                  

                                             英语高级教师周磊

     


     

           

     

           周磊,桃源一中英语高级教师。本科学历,1989年参加工作,从教22年,多次业务进修与培训,其中包括继续教育学习五次,并于2008年由市教育局选派美国加州进行教材教法培训。已送十届20个毕业班,因高考成绩突出,先后6次授县政府嘉奖,两次立功。其间2008年所带班级高考升学率位居全县之首,记三等功。2010年学考教学成绩全县第一,被评为县教学先进个人。担任班主任十年,期间年年被评为优秀班主任。先后三届担任高三备课组长,组编了一整套教材系列课件与学案,组织编写了校本英语阅读教材及高考复习资料。在高考备考上起到了一定的引领作用曾四次在县市高考研讨会上做过典型发言,多次对外上接待课,示范课,并于2008年上了全县高三复习示范课。2011年先后两次受聘参与市协作考试与联考命题;近五年多次获学生作品、技能优秀辅导奖;所写论文有一篇获省级一等奖,三篇获市级一等奖,自编教学设计获省级奖,原创复习课件获国家级课题阶段评选一等奖。三次参与课题研究,其中《课外阅读对提高学生语用能力的实验研究》《体验学习语感形成母语教学实验》已结题;《高中生自主阅读能力培养途径研究》已于2011年九月中期验收。   

          

     

     


                      完型填空(二)复习指导
                            

           (一)高考改革背景与命题特点
           2010年的高考湖南省实施新课改后变化如下:完形填空部分分成两个部分,第一部分为传统的完形选择填空,约300字设12空;第二部分为自由完形填词题,文章长约180字,设8空。选材可能为记叙文、说明文或议论文;强调对篇章结构的理解,不给提示词,无选项填空,但信息点都来自篇章;语法填空上偏重对虚词的考查,如代词(1)、介词(2)、冠词(1)、连词(3)、形容词(1)等;答案不一定唯一。
           (二)与完形一的区别
           完型填空第一节侧重考查词汇在语篇、语境中的运用,关键词是“语义”;而第二节考查功能语法,即侧重于考查词汇在篇章中的交际功能,关键词是“衔接、连贯”。完型(2)测试的目的在于考查考生对于文章大意的把握能力、句子还原能力、逻辑思维能力以及英语语言知识的把握能力,侧重考查考生的语感以及语言的衔接、连贯、结构等语言知识运用能力。目的就是要革除传统英语考试的弊端,增加主观性,减少客观性,消除投机心理,加大对考生思维判断能力和语言运用能力的考查力度,实现英语语言教学从被动记忆型向主动应用型的跃升.
          (三) 2011高考试题分析:
    Does going to college really pay off? Certainly!
    I remember taking 48 an English class in college on the short story. Our first assignment was to read 49 two  short stories and then discuss which one was better. After reading both, I wasn’t sure. Over the 50 next several months, my professor taught me 51why one story was so much better than the other.  52 One was rich in metaphor(隐喻)and character development, while the other was humorous 53 but  too shallow. I couldn’t see this at first. Yet, in a few months, my brain got reeducated and 54 I could see the difference between good and bad writing and could appreciate literature at a whole new level.
    Going to college helps build a strong mind, which leads 55 to greater success in one’s life.
    解读:根据上下文指代(代词):54
     短语搭配:55
     上下文联系:49(数词)50, 51,53
     句型结构:52
     语法:48(冠词)
          (四) 2010高考试题分析
       Parents are busy people. If they are working, they are usually not at home    48.when/after their children return from school.  Sometimes it is necessary for a parent to write    49. an   after-school note for their children. They sometimes put the note on the kitchen table, the refrigerator,   50. or   another place where their children are sure to find it.
       A note is often a  51. better   way to "talk" with a child than using the telephone. For one thing, parents have time to think about   52. what   they want to say before they write.   53. For   another, the note lists all the information in one place. It is easy to read again and again People often forget all the details that   54. they   hear in a telephone call. Finally, cell phones can be turned   55.off   or telephone calls not answered. For these reasons, after-school notes are very popular with parents.
    解读:根据上下文指代(代词):54
     短语搭配:53, 55
     上下文联系:48 ,50,52
     句型结构:51
    语法:49(冠词)
     考点分布:
    年份   体裁   冠词 数词 代词 介词 连词 其它
    2010  说明文 1 0    1       2     3      1
    2011  议论文 1 1    2       1     2      1

       (五)考查目的
     1. 阅读和理解语篇的能力。
     2. 分析句子结构的能力。
        3. 熟练运用语法的能力。
       (六)关于完形2的教学思考和尝试M11task部分相关阅读材料
     We need more men in our hospital, not as doctors, (1)             as nurses. Over
    the last few years, I have found that having male nurses is a real bonus, (2)          they definitely have a place in our hospital. There are several reasons for waiting male nurses here, not only (3)            half the population in our country is male. Men make excellent carers and are (4)                as good as women at taking care of others. (5)              , many men take good care of their children, wives, parents, sisters, brothers, and (6)                their nieces and nephews.
    解读:We need more men in our hospital, not as doctors, (1) but    as nurses. Over the last few years, I have found that having male nurses is a real bonus, (2) and   they definitely have a place in our hospital. There are several reasons for waiting male nurses here, not only (3) because          half the population in our country is male. Men make excellent careers and are (4) equally   as good as women at taking care of others. (5)  Actually   , ,many men take good care of their children, wives, parents, sisters, brothers, and (6) even     their nieces and nephews.
          (七)解题技巧
    一. 了解结构,确定词类:
    1.缺主语或宾语时,填代词或名词(只考代词);
     e.g. We pollute habitats. ____illegally hunt and kill animals.
    2.可数名词前设空,很可能填冠词,或限定词(some,another,any ,other…);
     e.g. We must not only use our knowledge and abilities to manage the earth,but to make the Earth ____ safe and healthy place where ____ animals and plants--including humans
    ourselves—can live.
    3.名词/代词前不缺限定词一定是填介词;
    e.g.All these activities take resources and habitats away ____  plants and animals.
    4.若两个或几个单词或短语之间没有连词,很可能填连词;
     e.g.Human activities often changes ____destroys the habitats that plants and animals need to survive.
    5.动词原形前设空,若上下文时态不一致,或主谓不一致时,一般填情态动词/助动词/强调词(do/does/did);
     e.g. Shortly after,these pills ____ work and I was losing weight fast.
    6.若缺状语用副词,缺定语用形容词;
     e.g. Animals and plants have always had a ________ time  surviving.
    二. 从句的确定
     若两句之间是逗号,不是分号或句号,根据句意选用不同的连词或关系词;
     e.g.Fortunately,we humans are beginning to realize our mistakes, __________
     we could destroy everything on Earth.
     运用思考:
    1. Good health enables us to enjoy our life and achieve ____ we hope for in our career.
    2.______ we all know, baked or fried food may be tasty, but eating too much of them will probably result in  some illnesses.
    3.When he knew his partner _______ suffered the same catastrophe never lost heart and that his days went on as colorfully as before, my friend asked him ______he could manage it.
    三. 根据上下文,从语法的角度确定词形(变化形式)
    冠词词形:定冠词/不定冠词(a/an)?
    代词/名词词形:单/复数;可数/不可数; 主格/宾格?
    动词短语:动词+副词/形容词/介词?
    形容词/副词: 原级/比较极/最高级?
    1. To tell the teacher the truth could hurt the relationship between you and____.
    2. CONCORDE, the world’s fastest traveler plane, will soon be over 33 years old.
       ___ first flew on 2 March, 1969 in France and Britain.
    3. I lost my job. So I had to find another ____.(one/others)
    4. Many people like to read the _________ newspaper home and abroad.(late/latter//latest)
    5.Last year, she saw _____advertisement recruiting(征募) host families for foreign students.(a/the)
    6.  He looked __________at the children.
    He looked _________at the news on the radio.(angry/angrily)
    四.根据固定搭配及习惯表达
    1.We are what we eat because what we eat every day has a great effect ____ our health.
    2.Twenty have been built ______ far.
    3. When you are optimistic and in ____ good mood, your future seems sunny and bright.
    4. Only the rich could afford plates, so a flat piece of hard barley bread on the  table was used instead for people who were ______ poor to buy plates.
    五.根据句型搭配填空
    1.So careless was I ________ I had forgotten all about that.
    2.  It was too long ________ the waitress came back and then she began to wipe down the table and suddenly was surprised at what she saw.
    3. _____ is estimated that 30 to 40 miners are trapped underground.
    4. Long ago _______ lived a man who did everything out of wishful thinking.
         (八)解题的一般步骤:
           一、通读全文,把握语篇。弄清文章的体裁、题材( 话题)、写作主线、段落大意、段落层次等有利于考生真正读懂全文大意,也有利于在“填空”时进行必要的逻辑推理。
           二、先易后难,尝试填空。在通读全文,基本把握文章大意之后,就可以动手填空了。主观填空的过程是一个判断空白处 应填词语的 “语义”和正确的语法“形式”的思维过程,要坚持从易到难的原则。根据我 们的英语知识积累和语感,有些答案可能不需 要过多的思考一眼就能看出来。如有关习惯用语、常用句式等,通常就可在这一步完成。遇到一时想不起来的空,先跳过去,不要用太多的时间停留 在一个单词上。填出容易的词语后,大意更趋明朗,语境更加清晰,有助于后面的难题的推敲和判断。
           三、利用语境,推 敲语义。要抓住上下文的内容联系和逻辑关系,进行多角度,全方位分析,从而准确地判断所填词的意义。推敲语义时,不要忽略连接词、代词、插入语、转折词等的作用。因为这些词往往是改变语境的关键词,具有因果、让步、递进、转折、指代、列举、承上启下的特殊功能。
           四、复读全文,确认答案。进行复查是必要的。复查的方法是将填好空的短文从头至尾通读一遍,以最后确定答案。这一步要解决两个问题 。第一是从语义和逻辑的角度审视全 文,看看所填单词语义上是否正确和最佳。检查一下所填单词是否能使文意上下连贯,前后照应,逻辑顺畅,能否自然地融入语篇。第二是从语法的角度审视全文,检查所填单词的词性和词形的正确性。从语法的角度看看所填词语词形变化是否正确。对自我感觉有问题的地方,要仔细揣摩,准确定夺。
    做完形填空题2时应留意如下几点:
    1.把握整体,理清段与段,句与句,以及上下文的逻辑关系;
    2.本着先完意后完形的原则,克服思维定式,注意文章细节;
    3. 结合文章线索,核对答案。
           (九)复习对策:
    语篇填空既然是通过语篇在语境中考语法,那么,我们 在解题前,就应先快速浏览短文,把握全文大意,然后分析句子结构确定填哪类词。即判断词性、词义和词形
    Ⅰ.冠词
    1. 主要考查的知识点:
           定冠词的基本用法、抽象名词具体化和固定搭配等 。
    2. 复习重点:
    (1)定冠词的用法(基本用法必须熟记。下面几句顺口溜可以帮助记忆:特指双熟悉,上文已提及;世上独无二,序数最高级;普转专有名,习语及乐器。)
     (2)不定冠词的基本用法。
    几种特殊用法:
    ①专有名词前用不定冠词,表示“像……的一个人或物”, a Napoleon;
    ②姓名前用不定冠词,表示“某个叫……的人”,多指不认识的人, a Miss Smith;
    ③ 用于某些物质名词前,表示“一种、一份、一阵”等,a tea and a coffee;
    ④用于某些抽象名词前,使抽象概念具体化。这种用法的名词有 a surprise/knowledge/success/failure/pleasure/interest/joy等等。
    (3). 冠词 的判断:根据冠词修饰名词这一特点,如果空格位于名词前(或名词前还有个形容词)时,该空格可能是填冠词。
    Ⅰ.冠词
    例1:Of all the subjects, I like history the best because it gives us ______ useful knowledge of things in the past.
    例2:Many lifestyle patterns do such great harm to health that they actually speed up ______ weakening of the human body.
    Ⅱ.代词
    1. 主要考查的知识点:
           不定代词和替代词的用法,it的用法和人称代词的格。
    2.复习重点:
            ①指代必须准确无误。
           ②在使用人称代词、反身代词、物主代词这3类代词时,要注意它们在句中的人称、单复 数及性别与所有格的一致性。
           ③疑问代词的用法。
    3. 代词的判断:
            ①空格所在的句子缺主语或宾语时,需考虑填代词或名词(多考代词)。缺主语,用主格;缺宾语,用宾格;人称代词、不定代词、反身代词、指示代词等主要通过上下文来 判断其语义和根据语法规则来判断其词形。
            ②名词在句子中作主语、宾语或表语且名词前面没有限定词,该名词前的空格可能是填some, any,other,another或与前面名词或人称代词对应的物主代词等限定词。
    Ⅱ.代词
    例1:On my desk is a photo that my father to ok of ______ when I was a baby.
    例2:Everyone round her was writing pages and pages. However hard she thought, she couldn't find ______ to write about.
    例3:A young tired­looking woman with a baby in her arms as ked to be  allowed to visit her hus band in prison. A short time later, when her husband  with chains on his feet took a seat beside her, her tired face lit up. I watched them laugh, cry, and share ______ child.
    例4: — Which of the three ways shall I take to the village?
                — ______ way as you please.
    Ⅲ.形容词或副词
    1. 主要考查的知识点:
           形容词作定语;形容词和副词的比较级、最高级等。
           2. 重点复习:
           ①形容词和副词的基本用法及相关语法规则。
           ②比较级的程度修饰语(much,very much,far,even,still,rather,any等)。
           ③表示起承转合的副词。此功能与关联词相似,只是这种副词在用法上更加灵活多变。典型的有though, however, also, therefore, still, besides, or,otherwise, first, second, then, finally等等。
    3. 形容词 /副词的判断:
           ①根据形容词与连系动词连用及修饰名词的特点,如果空格前的动词是连系动词或空格在名词前(尤其是“冠词+______ + 名词”结构)时,该空可考虑填形容词;如果空格所填的词是修饰行为动词、形容词、副词、过去分词及整个句子(此时抽去空格,句意基本完整),则考虑用副词。
           ②两个事物进行比较应用比较级,三个或三个以上事物进行比较应用最 高级。
    Ⅲ.形容词或副词
    例1:Soon it would be the holidays. But before that, there were the end of year exams. All the students had been w orking ______ for some time.
    例2:A recent study found that dogs often yawned after watching people do it. In the study, a human researcher yawned in front of 29 dogs. More than 70 percent of the dogs yawned back. That finding shocked the researcher.  The percentage is much ______ than humans' yawn response rate. Humans tend to “catch” 45% to 60% of yawns.
    IV.连词
    1. 主要考查的知识点:从属连词和并列连词的基本用法及意义。
           2. 复习重点:
           ①各种从句(名词性从句、状语从句、定语从句)连词的基本用法及在语言环境中的活用;引导各种从句的从属连词:如名词性从句的引导词what, who, which, when, where, whatever, whoever, whichever, whether;状语从句引导词where, wherever, when, if, how, unless, until; 定语从句引导词that,which, who, whom, whoever, whomever, whichever, where,  when, why 等。
    ②介词+连词引导的定语从句。
    ③特殊句型中的连词。
    ④并列连词的基本意义及语法作用;并列句的各种关联词:如and, but, or, though, although, so等。
    3. 连词的判断
           (1)从属连词的判断:
           ①设空前面为名词,后面的句子可能是定语从句或同位语从句。如是定语从句而从句缺主语或宾语时则该空应填关系代词that, which(先行词指物), who,  whom(先行词指人);如果空格前面的名词(即先行词)在定语从句中充当状语,应填where, when, why 等连接副词;作定语时用whose(whose+ 名词=the +名词+of which)。如果是同位语 从句,则根据句意判断所缺连词。
    【特别注意】
            a. 空格前面是句子,且有逗号与空格后的句子隔开,可考虑为非限制性定语从 句的连词,连词的选用同样根据先行词及先行词在句中的作用而定;若是前面的整个句子作先行词,连词用which 或as(这一点)。
            b. 设空形式为:“……名词 +介词______……”时,多为“介词+连词”引导的定语从句。
    例:I'll never forget the days ______ I lived in the factory with the workers,______ is a great help to my article.
    ②设空位于句首,且包含空格的句子与后面的句子有逗号隔开,该空可判断为状语从句的连词。设空位于句中,空格前后的两个句子都分别是完整意义的句子,该空可考虑填状语从句的连词。再根据上下文句子的逻辑关系,填写恰当的状语从句引导词。
    例:After the war,a new school building was set up ______ there has once been a  theatre.
    ③设空前面为动词或短语动词,空格部分一般为宾语从句连词。从句缺主语或宾语时 则该空应填连接代词who, whom, what(所……的);从句不缺少任何成分时,填that;从句缺少状语时,则应考虑填连接副词where, when, why等;或者根据前后句子 之间的逻辑意义,可填if/whether(是否)。系动词后为表语从句。
    IV.连词
    例1:We don't have to tell children ______ they should take from the story, just to make eye contact to create “a personal experience”.
    例2:— I prefer shutt ing  myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays.
           — That's ______ I don't agree. You should have a more active life.
    ④设空位于句首且包含空格的句子在句中充当主语时,该空连词为主语从句连词,再根据主从句的逻辑关系,填写恰当的连词(特别注意用it作形式主语后的连词用法)。
    例:______ we will go outing depends on whether it is fine tomorrow. (2)并列连词的判断:
             两个句子意义完整(有时有逗号分开,有时没 有)。只能根据两个句子之间的关系确定连词的选用。
    例:I loved the teacher. She had an unpleasant voice and way of speaking, ______ she was encouragi ng and inspirin g. For some  reasons she was impressed with my work and me.
    V.介词
    1. 主要考查的知识点:
         ①介词的基本用法及在语境中的活用。②固定搭配
     2. 介词的判断:
         ①在句子中不缺主语、宾语或表语的情况 下(即名词或代词在句子中不作主语、宾语或表语时),设空在名词或代词前面一定填介词(设空前后名词或代词并列关系除外);
         ②不及物动词后带宾语时,设空在动词与宾语之间应填介词(或副词);
         ③设空形式为:……“名词 ______ 连词……”时,空格处要填介词。再根据语境填写恰当意义的介词。
    V.介词
    例:People buy fruits ______  color.

    跟踪训练:
    1. When you are in England you must be careful in the street _______  the traffic drives on the left.   …
        When you go by bus in England, you have to be careful, _____.
    2.  Finishing their shopping at the supermarket, a middle-aged couple found _____ new car stolen….
        To their surprise, the car had been returned and…
    3.I sometimes order products or service online to save money and time instead of going to a store and buying_________ I’m looking for. For example, I bought a digital camera online the other day ____ saved about 50 dollars.
    4 _______ I don’t do a job that’s heading somewhere, I’ll go mad.
     Answer:
     一.1.we 2.the 3.by 4.and;and 5.did/could 6.difficult/hard;enough
     二.But  1.what 2,As 3,which
     三.1.him 2.It 3.one4.latest 5.an 6.angrily ;angry
     四。1.on 2.so 3.a 4.too
     五。1.that 2.before 3.It 4.there
     跟踪训练:
      1.because,too 2.their 3,what 4.If
          (十) 体会和总结
           1.心得体会:完型填空二是从完型填空一中分离出来,它是以自由填空形式考查语篇结构及句子与句子的结构衔接,连贯和语用能力的一个新题型,无论在语法点上还是结构上与完型一都是互补的,2010年全省380809个考生中,有107270个考生该题得零分,这是一个令人触目惊心的数字。是什么原因让这么多考生一筹莫展的呢?通过抽样调查我们发现,学生存在的最大问题是多数学生对于该题的考点不大清楚再加上本身的语法与词汇知识薄弱,所以看不懂文章,特别是在连词与副词的运用上把握不准。
           2.加强相关语法知识梳理(见附表);
           3.第一轮复习时结合教材,培养语感,增强学生信心。课文复习中把重点短语与句子中的虚词部分通过填空形式进行强化训练,还可以充分利用 Module 1-11的话题短文设空练习这样既形成了完型二的解题思路,又巩固了课文加强了写作素材的积累。
    如:模7第四单元复习中与完型二有关的基础训练:
    (重点短语)
    1.._____a discount  打折     2.___ the hope that…希望     3. _______ferry 乘轮渡
    4. _____ repair在修理中  5. _____ the authority of…在…的管理下 6. choke ____the traffic阻塞交通  choke _____death …致死   7. link____ ___ 和…    8. take notice ___ 注意到,关注
    9. speed ____加速     10. keep _____ with the latest market price和最近市场价格并驾齐驱
    11. arise ____  起源于    12. function ____ 起…作用   13.be aimed _____旨在,针对
    14.  _____an orderly way有秩序地      15. burst _______ flames 突然燃烧起来
    16. an invitation  _____ accidents 事故的诱因;  17. ______  my expectations超出某人的想象
    18. be  fined for speaking ____ the phone ____ driving 因开车时打电话而被罚款
    19. This is true ______everyone这对每个人来说是重要的.
    20. pick ____and drop ___ people at different places ____ the route按照线路在不同地点接送乘客.
    (重点句子)
    1.However, most trains into London ____ went to the distant boundary of the city _____ building railway tracks into the city would have caused damage to many historic buildings.
    2.The storms washed away soil along the road _____ part of the road is still under repair
    3.This is true of everyone _____ accidents affect drivers of vehicles as well as cyclists and pedestrians.
    4._____ is up to all of us road users to make sure that we avoid accidents ____ paying attention to road safety.
    5.There is no guarantee _____ you can get the particular ferry you want.
    (相关话题完型)        Public transport
    As society develops, remarkable changes have taken place in the public transport. The development of _____offers us a more convenient life and meanwhile greatly promotes the development of the cities. Here arises a problem: should public transport be free to the public? As to it, some people hold the view _____all the public facilities should be free to and serve the public as well. But many people believe that the fees are necessary. As far _____  I am concerned, I agree with the latter .
       First of all, the cost of maintenance of all the public transport is very huge. But _______every citizen accessible to public transport takes this responsibility, things will be easy.  Secondly, proper fees can promote the awareness of valuing and protecting the infrastructure of the public. Who use the public transport? Undoubtedly, the public. ______ who eventually break it down and even destroy it? The public ____. So, clearly, everybody using the public transport should pay for and try to protect it, we can avoid a state of chaos caused by the free public transportation and we can gain _____ perfect social order in turn.
       In my opinion, we all have to contribute _____ society and try our best to support the public transport. And besides, we consume, we pay the bill. Therefore, I think the fees should be required.
           这些空白处大多以介词,副词,连词为主,完全是配合完型二的基础巩固练习。
           学生做完填空还可以进行背诵,是一本万利的事情,大大提高了课堂的效益。在朗读课文的过程中让学生自己当老师预测完型二的出题点,也是一项行之有效的方法,让学生自觉养成对这些“小词”关注的好习惯
           附:1.关于冠词﹑代词﹑介词﹑形容词﹑副词及连接词的用法可参考《五年高考三年模拟》
           1. 相关语法练习:
    (pronouns)
    人称代词(personal pronouns):
     单数singular 复数plural
     主格nominative 宾格accusative 主格nominative 宾格accusative
    第一人称 I  me we us
    第二人称 you


    第三人称 he   
     she   
     it   
    物主代词(possessive pronouns):
     单数 复数
     第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
    形容词性物主代词
    adjectival possessive pronoun      
          
          
    名词性  物主代词nominal possessive pronoun      
          
          

    反身代词(reflexive pronouns):
     单数 复数
    第一人称 myself 
    第二人称 yourself 
    第三人称 himself herself itself 

    不定代词:(indefinite pronouns)
    一.
     含义 数量 名词的数 动词的数 语气
    both 都 2 复数 复数 

     

    肯定
    all  ≧3 单数或复数 单数或复数 
    each     
    every(只能作定语)    ○ 
    either     
    any     
    neither     
    否定
    none(不能作定语)   ○  
    二.none, nothing, nobody ( no one )
    1 既可指人又可指物且表特指概念的是____________, 它可用于回答how many, how much引导的疑问句。
    2 只能指人且表泛指概念的是_____________, 它可回答who引导的疑问句。
    3 只能指物且表泛指概念的是_____________, 它可回答what引导的疑问句。
    4  _____________ of these girls is from Canada.
    5 —Do you have any money?   —_____________.
     —Can you see anything in the room?   —_____________.
    —Can you see anybody in the room?    —_____________.
    三.one, another, other, the other, some, others, the others
    1 I have two books here. __________________ is about politics, and __________________ is about history.
    2 I have bought a book now. Can you lend me __________________ one/ book?
    3 I have many books here. __________________ are about politics, and __________________ are all about history.
    4 Some people like running while __________________ prefer to swim.
    注意:
    1 Would you please make it some other day / another day?  
    2 I have no other close friends like him.
    3 I’ll stay at home for another 3 days / 3 more days.
    4 We have ordered enough equipment. Some will arrive tomorrow, and the rest, next week.
    四.one, ones, the one, the ones, that, those
    1 She gave me a gift, ___________ that I have never seen.
    2 She gave me many gifts, ___________ that I have never seen.
    3 My most famous relative of all, _____________ who really left his mark on America, was Red Sussel, my great-grandfather.
    4 The book he gave me is better than _________________ on the desk.
    5 The books he gave me are better than ________________ on the desk.
    6 The bread I bought tastes better than _______________ on the table.
    五.many, much, few, little, a few, a little
    六.与复合不定代词构成的习惯句型
    1 He is nothing but a singer.  (only )
     2 He is anything but a singer. (definitely not)
     3 He is someone.      (an important person)
     4 He is something. (a very excellent person)
                                  
    连词conjunctions:
    一 引导定语从句的连词
    that, which, who, whom, whose, of whom, of which, as它们在定语从句中主要充当 ______, _______ , ______或______.
    when, where, why, how 它们在定语从句中充当 ____________。
    1 我认识那个叫汤姆的男孩。I know the boy _______________ name is Tom.
    2 长沙是我们所居住的城市。Changsha is the city _______________ we are living.
    3 这套房子以他所期待的低价出售了。The flat was sold at such a low price _________________ he expected.
    二 引导名词性从句(主语﹑宾语﹑表语﹑同位语从句)的连词
    that, whether / if 它们在名词性从句中不充当任何成分。
    who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whomever, whosever, whatever, whichever它们在名词性从句中主要充当 _________, __________ , _________或_________.
    when, where, why, because, how, whenever, wherever, however它们在名词性从句中充当 ____________。
    1 She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do _____________ it takes to save her life.
    2 I’d like to speak to _____________ is in charge of International Sales.
    3 I’d like to speak to anyone _____________ is in charge of the frim.
    三 引导状语从句的连词
    1 引导原因状语从句的连词: ______________, _______________, ______________ …
    2 引导结果状语从句的连词: ________________, _______________, ______________ …
    3 引导目的状语从句的连词:so (that), in case, for fear that, lest
    4 引导比较状语从句的连词:______________________, ______________________ …
    5 引导让步状语从句的连词:although, though, as, while, no matter what, whatever …
    6 引导条件状语从句的连词:_________, ______________, ______________,_________ …
    7 引导方式状语从句的连词:____________
    8 引导地点状语从句的连词:____________
    9 引导时间状语从句的连词:
    since, when, while, as, after, before, (not)…until    the first / second / last time (that) …
    as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment/ minute/ instant (that) …, hardly/ scarcely…when, no sooner…than
    四 表示并列关系的连词
    and, but, or ,as well as, not only…but also, both … and…, either … or…, neither…nor…, not…but…, whether…or…  …
    注意:
    有的副词也可以作为关联词语出现,使句子与句子之间的意思互相连接,它们不能引导从句。常见的这种副词有:
    相反,然而:however  in contrast  instead  nevertheless on the contrary   on the other hand
    而且,也:also  on top of something  above all  besides  furthermore in addition  moreover
    因此:therefore     as a result    
    一来 …… 二来 ……(表解释原因):for one thing - - - for another - - -
    总之:altogether
    自主探究:
    A:
    1.When I see a child subject to this kind of pressure, I think of Donnie. He was ________ shy , nervous perfectionist.
    2. There once were a goat and a donkey…. So the farmer killed __________ goat and gave the donkey medicine made from its heart.
    3.The little boy pulled ________ right hand out of the pocket …
     B:
    1. When I took the money from her grandparents, I looked back _________the girl, who was giving me the most optimistic, largest smile I had ever seen. 
    2. Many of the cars broke down on the course and some drivers spent more time under their cars than ___ them.
    3.If you’re ______ the more than one million workers who have been laid off this year, finding a new job will require a strategy that differs from a typical search.
     C:
    1. In the morning and in the evening when people go to or come from work, the streets are very ____.
    2. What people like to eat differs  from culture to culture. Compared with people in the west, Chinese people used to eat more grain and vegetables, and ______ meat, which is a good eating habit.(little/less)
     D:
    1.One of the_______ gift choices I ever made was for my high school English teacher, which made him very unhappy.
    2. The little boy pulled ______ right hand out of the pocket…
     A.a ;the ;his  B.at;in;among   C.busy;less   D.worst.his

    实践演练
    1.I’m sorry to know you have such a difficult problem. I think your classmate was supposed to
    study hard instead of cheating in the examination.I’m afraid that he can’t make _1_ progress by doing this,or worse.
     I think you have the responsibility to help _2_ as his classmate. _3_ don’t you find a chance to have a talk with him?You can tell him the harmful effects of cheating  _4_ encourage him to study hard.You can also tell him that the teacher’s praise is not everything.
    The most important thing is _5_ he can learn .Therefore,if he doesn’t follow your advice,you
    can report _6_ to the teacher . After all, the teacher is a person _7_ deserves to know the truth. Maybe the teacher can help  him in a different way.
    Finally,I hope you can be happy again,and your classmate can be a student,__8__ who is
    honest and hardworking.
           1. any 2.him 3.Why 4.and 5.what 6.it 7.who 8.one
    2. A proverb says, “Time is money”. But in my  opinion, time is even 1 ____ precious than money. Why? 2 _______ when money is spent, we can earn it back. However, when time is gone , it will never return. 3 _____ is known to all that the time we can use is limited.  Therefore we should make 4_________ use of our time to study hard so as to serve our country in 5 _____ future.
    But it is a pity that there are a lot of people 6 _____ do not realize the value of time. 7 ________spend their precious time smoking, drinking and playing.
     In a word, we should form the good habit of saving time. Do not put off 8 _____ can be done today till tomorrow.
    1.more ; 2.because  3.It  4.good/full  5.the  6.who  7.They  8.what


     

          

     
     

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